Things I learned on Phono EQ curves, Pt. 0


Following is just the beginning of the long series of the study I have been doing for a while, regarding the controversial topic “Phono EQ Curves” – people having various opinions on it, although many of them are subjective and not scientifical. I started the study and research of the history of disc recording as a whole, from the very early electrical disc recording technology in the 1920s.

我が家では15年ほど前から、78rpm や非RIAA LP用に Esoteric Sound (Rek-o-kut) Re-Equalizer という簡易式アドオン型フォノイコライザを使用しています。実は昨年、Re-Equalizer III という最新バージョンに置き換えたのですが。

Since 2006, I’ve been using Esoteric Sound (Rek-o-kut) Re-Equalizer (actually I replaced it with the most recent version Re-Equalizer III in 2021) for 78rpms and pre-RIAA LPs. It’s a niche phono EQ compensator.

Esoteric Sound Re-Equalizer

Esoteric Sound Re-Equalizer III (above), bought in 2021
Esoteric Sound Re-Equalizer (bottom), bought in 2006


This unit is NOT a phono preamp with the capability of adjusting turnover/rolloff, but it is a compensator unit that should be connected AFTER the phono preamp, complementing the input for various pre-RIAA EQ curves. Normally I choose the “Bypass” mode for RIAA playback, ensuring the hard-wired passthrough output; when I want non-RIAA playback, I select the “In” mode to compensate the playback.


It’s not an expensive unit for pure audiophiles, but I am satisfied with this, because only 10 percent or less of my entire 78/45/33rpm collection need other playback equalizations than RIAA. It’s also because I don’t think I am an “audiophile” at all 🙂

System Configuration as of April 30, 2022

パワーアンプがブリッジモノ x 2台になりました
また、mac mini が Mac Studio に置き換わりました
my home audio system as of Apr. 30, 2022.

Introduction / はじめに


Now let’s get down to today’s topic. There have been various opinions about these pre-emphasis/de-emphasis characteristics (EQ curves) for disc records – from all around the world, especially in the “internet” world. Many researchers, fanatics, audiophiles, fans, etc. shares their own theories. And opinions are often divided.


Some of them are based on the facts (circuit diagrams, technical documents, interviews, etc.), and others are not (like subjective listening). Especially, several versions of “list of EQ curves” have been in circulation, many of which are not well grounded and are not mentioning reference source. This situation is just confusing.

Epitome of EQ history / カーブにまつわる歴史の概略


Anyway, if I try to summarize the entire history in the US industry/market, based on the objective facts – in order to have few dissent – it would be something like these below. (please note it doesn contain the history in Europe and in other regions in the world for simplicity)

1925〜1948: electrical 78rpm years

78rpm 電気吹き込み時代から、LP/45rpm microgroove 時代初期まで、EQカーブはレーベルごと、録音/カッティングスタジオごと、時期ごとにバラバラだった(特に初期は、盤ごとに、あるいは録音ごとに、なんてことも)

EQ curves for the early electrical recorded 78rpms to microgroove LPs/45rpms are so much varied and complicated from one label to another, from one cutting studio to another, from one period to another (or even one recording to another – one disc to another – in eary years)
also, EQ curves, recording/cutting techniques/technology, as well as playback equipments were all under development and improvement in these years

1942: NAB Standard for transcription discs

民生用より先に、放送局用レコード(横振動)の統一カーブとして 1942年に NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) カーブ (今風に言うと「500B-16」) が策定された

Before the standardization of commercial discs, EQ curve (that later categorized as “500B-16”) for broadcast “transcription” discs (lateral transcription) were standardized in 1942 by NAB (National Association of Broadcasters)

1948 & 1949: Columbia and RCA Victor introduce microgroove records

1948年6月、Columbia が民生用 LP を発表した際、この放送局用 NAB カーブを一部改良したカーブ (500C-16) を採用した (7/10/12インチ 33 1/3rpm)
一方、1949年初頭に “Madame X” 7インチ 45rpm レコードを発表した RCA Victor は (old) Orthophonic カーブ (正確には異なるがおおよそ 500N-12.7) を使用した

In June 1948, when Columbia introduced Long Playing microgroove records, they adopted Columbia curve (500C-16) for 7/10/12-inch 33 1/3rpms, a modified version of NAB curve
On the other hand, RCA Victor introduced “Madame X” 7-inch 45rpm records at the beginning of 1949, manufactured with “(old) Orthophonic” curves (500N-12.7, although strictly different)

1949: NAB Standard for magnetic tapes

1949年、実用化が進んだオープンリールテープの録音再生規格標準化が NAB によって行われた

Also in 1979, NAB included recording and reproducing standards for magnetic tapes that was becoming gradually popular in the professional field
This period also coincides with the time when some companies started to use magnetic tapes as cutting masters

1949〜: State of confusion continued

回転数戦争 (33 1/3 vs 45)」のさなか、他レーベルもマイクログルーヴ盤をリリースし始めた。LP 用に Columbia カーブや NAB カーブを採用するレーベルもあったが、独自のカーブを使うレーベルやカッティングスタジオも少なくなかった

During the “battle of the speeds (33 1/3 vs 45)”, other labels followed to release microgroove records. Some minor label used Columbia (or NAB) curve for LP records, but many other labels used different (their own) curves these days
Around these days when “High Fidelity (Hi-Fi)” boom was being emerged, some expensive audio component companies added Phono compensasion circuits and knobs for their preamplifiers

1951: Proposal of AES Standard Playback Curve

混乱を収束させる取り組みとして、1951年に AES (Audio Engineering Society) が「再生用」統一カーブ (400N-12) を提唱
一部のレーベルは、この AES 再生カーブに合わせた録音カーブを使い始めた

In 1951, AES conducted an attempt to settle the confusion, introducing the AES “playback” curve (400N-12)
It was intended as a “reproducing” characteristics, a compromise to play all discs with various recording characteristics on the market
Some labels adopted AES for recording/playback curve

1952: RCA Victor introduces New Orthophonic

一方、RCA Victor が “New Orthophonic” の名のもと 7インチ 45rpm & 10インチ/12インチ 33 1/3rpm 向けに新しいカーブ (500R-13.7) を提唱、1952年9月頃から使い始めた

On the other hand, RCA Victor started using yet another EQ curve (500R-13.7) under the name of “New Orthophonic” for all three formats, at around Sep. 1952

1953: NARTB adopts New Orthophonic for transcription

そんな中、1953年6月、NARTB (National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters, 元 NAB) が、新しい放送局用カーブとして New Orthophonic を採用
この際、放送局用ディスク規格として初めてLPや45rpmの fine groove (microgroove) も言及された

Then on Jun. 1953, NARTB (National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters, was NAB) adopted New Orthophonic curve as a standardized recording/playback EQ curve for transcription discs
This time, “fine groove” (microgroove) transcriptions and 45 rpm records were mentioned in this standard for the first time

1954: AES and RIAA accepts NARTB curve for commercial disc standard

そして 1954年1月、AES(Audio Engineering Society)が、NARTB をベースにした改訂版 AES 再生カーブを発行

その直後の1954年2月、RIAA (The Recording Industry Association of America) が、民生用レコードの統一カーブとして NARTB を採用

And on Jan. 1954, AES (Audio Engineering Society) proposed the revised AES playback curve, based on the NARTB curve

Also on Feb. 1954, RIAA (The Recording Industry Association of America) adopted the NARTB curve also for commercial discs

Aftermath: Some time needed for RIAA curve being accepted by all faculties

その後、各レーベルごとに徐々に、RIAA カーブ (= NARTB = new Orthophonic) でカッティング・製造されたレコードに置き換わっていった

After that, almost all labels gradually switched from their own curves to the standardized RIAA curve (= NARTB = new Orthophonic) in coming years

と、まぁ、こんなところでしょうか(ここでは RIAA-IEC や eRIAA については触れず、それらより以前の話について書いています)。

Well, this would be a brief summary of what everyone would agree (later RIAA-IEC or eRIAA is not covered here).


These are what we can confirm with technical documents and magazines of old days, as well as conference proceedings and papers. I’m going to mention such historical documents in the following (coming) articles.

Common Question 1 / よく目にする論点 1


Taking the above facts into account, we often see the following question (or point of controversey):

Correct EQ Curve for a particular disc


Which is the correct EQ curve and its parameters for a particular record, catalogue number ZZZZ, with matrix YYYY, pressed in XXXX?

個人的には、「過去の研究資料などから、類推されるカーブの候補をあてはめてみて、かつ必要に応じてトーンコントロールであったりパラメトリックイコライザなどを使って、自分が気持ちよく感じる音で聞けばいい」と思っています(笑) 「正しいか、正しくないか」「合ってるのか、合ってないのか」とは別個に、です。

Personally I would think this: “I just choose the EQ curve from the candidates (if more than one EQ possibility), based on the past research works, and listen, then use tone control or parametric equalizer to compensate the sound, in order to make the sound output match your preference”. This is a different standpoint of “which curve is correct?” or “which curve should be used or not to be used?”.


I believe it’s not only the complete matching between the recording/playback curves, but also how the recording enginner applied equalization to the master tape, how the cutting engineer used equalization before/after the cutting amp.


What’s more, how the frequency response of listeners’ environment (including room acoustic, phono pickup characteristics, other audio components’ characteristics, impedance between components, spaker characteristics, etc., that often varies from one person to another) also should be concerned: all of these affect the final frequency response.

とはいえ、ご存知の通り、全く同じ時期の全く同じレコードに対して推奨される再生カーブは、資料AではX、資料BではY、資料CではZ、… と複数の説が見られる場合もあったり、そもそもそれらの資料では「なぜそのカーブと断定・推測できるのか」の出典や理屈が抜けていることが多いのは、困りますよね。

However, as we all know, there is famous controversy – the document A specifies the playback curve X, while another document B insists curve Y, yet another document C says it’s curve X, etc., all for a particular record, without any references or reason. This makes us so confused actually.

Common Question 2 / よく目にする論点 2


And as a consequence, the following question often arises:

Until when non-RIAA EQ curves was actually used?

1960年代、1970年代にも RIAA ではないカーブが使われて盤が存在していたのではないか?実際、特定のレコードを別カーブで再生したらすごく音が良くなった、と言う人もいる

What would it be if non-RIAA EQ curves were used for an inevitable amount of records even from the 1960s-1970s? Actually, some people says that particular records sounds much better when different EQ curve from RIAA is used for playback


I am skeptical about this type of question. Although I know many people decide the EQ curve for a specific record as a result of subjective listening, I don’t want to say “the particular record A is cut by the curve B” unless we can confirm it with some primary source on the equipments the cutting engineer(s) used, the parameters they applied, etc.


Furthermore, isn’t it very peculiar that the engineer(s) used non-RIAA curve even though almost all the customers (listeners) used audio components with RIAA curve? Non-RIAA curve applied when few customers had expensive preamplifier with variable EQ curve switches (except early years of “hi-fi fanatics” or “audiophiles”)? Are there any convincing argument that the engineer(s) used non-RIAA curve for the people whose equipments are built with RIAA EQ curve, without mentioning “this particular disc should be played with non-RIAA curve named B” or “you need a dedicated non-RIAA phono preamp” on its cover or its label, or in some advertisements on magazines?


Additionally, I believe that “playing with a non-RIAA curve resulted in better sound (subjectively)” doesn’t always mean “this particular disc’s lacquer master was cut definitely with the non-RIAA curve” – as I mentioned above, not only the recording curve but also many other equipments and operations alter the frequency response, whether the recording/mastering/cutting engineers intentionally did or not.

余談ですが、Gold Note PH-1000 というカーブ可変機能付きの超高級フォノイコ(150万円オーバー!)のStereophile 誌でのレビュー記事で、著者の Michael Fremer 氏が「オンラインでのバックファイアとペテン師のほら吹きは続く」「古い迷信はしぶとく生き続ける」と、ステレオ盤の非RIAA説を痛烈に批判していました。その一方で、1956年のルイ・プリマの Capitol T-755 “The Wildest!” は AES カーブの方がオーディオ的に好ましく聴けた、とか書いているのが不思議ですが。。。(笑)

By the way, I found the Stereophile’s review article for Gold Note PH-1000 hi-end phono preamp ($11,999!) that has EQ curve flexibility. In this impressive article, author Michael Fremer bitterly criticizes the “non-RIAA curve for stereo records” theory, and strongly claims: “the online blowback and charlatanism continues” “Old myths die hard” etc. On the other hand, he auditioned Louie Prima’s “The Wildest!” (Capitol T-755, 1956) with the Capitol (AES) curve and he liked it better than using the RIAA curve, because “the picture seemed to open up timbrally and dynamically” – which I wonder somehow.

(注:当方は残念ながら Capitol T-755 のファーストプレスLPを所有しておらず、試聴をしたこともないことをご了承ください)

(please note: I have never owned / listened to the 1st pressing LP of Capitol T-755 yet, unfortunately)

Back to the basic: reading primary sources and researches
/ 基本に立ち返り、一次資料や研究資料を読み解くことに


It surely would be fun to “experiment with several EQ curves for better result” – subjective listening by browsing all sorts of opinions and hypothesis on the web, building some hypotheses, picking up several candidates, and evaluate various discs by listening. The real joy of audio/music fanatics as a hobby.


However, although I completely have sympathy for the above joy, I rather want “to learn and dig the history” and “to know more of technical background” before subjective listenings and building hypotheses, by “consulting the primary source of historical documentation”, then “would like to know the consequences and conclusion by combinining objective facts and theories”. After all, I just want to know “why” and “how” by learning through the analysis. Without any objective facts, any hypotheses are just like telling delusional stories.


Accordingly, I decided to get out of the “sciolism” – started to re-learn re-explore the following topics, in order to accomplish my goal. I don’t mean to criticize other opinions; I don’t mean to advocate my opinion being 100% correct. I just wanted to learn the history of these.

History and Genealogy of EQ curves


To begin with, what it means to record sounds onto discs? what is the EQ curve? Why was it born? How it was changed and improved through the years? Why EQ curves differed from one label to another, one studio to another?

History and Genealogy of Recording Instruments


How were the equipments, instruments and other technologies for disc recording? And how they were changed and improved through the years?
Also, how did these technology relate to the recording curve?

Transcription discs vs Commercial discs


Difference between transcription discs for broadcasters and commercial discs for consumers; different degree of interest between these two

History of “Toward the Uniform Equalization”


When the initial attempt was made for a standardized equalization curve of commercial disc records? Why the unified curve was needed? How did it go until the final standardization?

What and how consumers / engineers thought on the confusion


During the period of confusion, what were cosumers (casual listeners, as well as audio/music enthusiasts) thinking and how did they feel? What/how about audio component manufacturers or record labels?

After the Standardization


What happened and how it went after the standardization?
Furthermore, does any detailed documentation exist – for a particular studio, a particular recording/cutting session, a particular engineer, a particular period/date?

The Myth of “Flat Frequency Response via EQ Curve”


Is the recording/playback EQ curve the only facter that guarantees “Flat Frequency Response”? (highly presumably, no)


Luckily enough, we are living in the 21st century – incredible amount of documents are accesible online (if you try to search and find them), without going to the National Library or obtaining auctioned books/magazines.


Also, we can follow and examine the paths and outcome of “the precursors in pursuit of scientific truth”: senior researchers. Furthermore, such online documents include academi journals and research presentations, that are scientifically/technically reliable – how lucky we are.


Several months ago, I started to dive into a vast amount of past magazines and books, as well as technical documentations, conference proceedings and papers, etc., to make me understand more deeply about EQ curves and its surrounding area. So it will include my learning process and its consequence in the coming article(s)


So please let me know if you find any mistakes on my article(s) / if you have different opinions.

Thanks to Loads of References / 大量の参考文献に感謝


One more note before the main part…

数ヶ月前、本件について調べ始めるに際し、最初はまず業界誌や一般読者向けオーディオ誌・音楽誌のバックナンバーなどをあたりました。ほどなく、AES (Audio Engineering Society) ジャーナルなどの各種論文やリファレンス本などに到達し、そして最後には、私が調べようと思っていたことを既に調べ尽くされていた(笑)web 上のさまざまな概要記事、まとめサイト、個人ブログにも出会いました。

When I firstly started doing researches on EQ curves a few months ago, I read trade back issues of magazines for record industry, as well as audio magazines for consumers. After that, my curiosity gradually enhanced to reading various papers and presentations such as on AES (Audio Engineering Society) Journal and some good reference books. Then, finally I came across several summary articles, websites and personal blogs, where almost all topics and contents are covered, investigated, and researched already 🙂

じゃあ、最初から、そのまとめサイトを読んだらよかったんじゃないのって? いえいえ、そんなことはありません。それらに書かれている事実やニュアンスを隅々までしゃぶり尽くし、理解し尽くすためには、前提となる知識が必要ですから、一見遠回りにみえますが、とてもいい勉強になりました。今後も引き続き理解を深めていきたいです。

So you might think I should have gone straight to such summary websites for the first thing? No, I don’t think so – it’s just like “you are being wise after the event”. Also, in order to fully understand/appreciate what are written in such articles, you need to understand several technical backgrounds – “premise knowledge” beforehand. And I am just happy that I could learn so many things through my “search & read & learn & discuss” period. I will definitely keep doing this, to cultivate a better understanding.


So, before we get into the main point, here is a (partial) list of such invaluable information I could find:

Methods of High Quality Recording and Reproducing of Music and Speech Based on Telephone Research
J.P. Maxfield and H.C. Harrison
The Bell System Technical Journal, Volume V, pp.493-523 (1926)

  Biodeversity Heritage Library
  The AHRC Research Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music

また当論文は、1959年の圧倒的情報量の書籍 “From Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph” (by O. Read & W.L. Welch) の Appendix に掲載されている他、AES (Audio Engineering Society) ジャーナルの1978年5月号にも掲載され、さらに過去のAESジャーナル論文のうちディスク録音に関するものをコンパイルした「Anthology of articles on Disk Recording」にも収録されています。

If you read and follow any web articles / technical books / conference presentation / papers, and if you follow the quotes and references on them, you will eventually reach this classic paper way back from 1926, authored by the inventors of electrical disc recording. This is an invaluable technical document of the description of very early Electrical Recording technology, along with the associated acoustic (mechanical) reproducing – that’s why this particular paper has been refered by almost all papers/books on disc recording technology and EQ curves.
This paper is also included on that incredibly informative 1959 book “From Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph” by O. Read & W.L. Welch, then the reprint was included again in the AES Journal May 1978 (also included in the “Anthology of articles on Disk Recording”, a compilation of papers and reports of disk recording that previously published on the AES (Audio Engineering Society) Journals).
Furthermore, the theoretical foundation of this paper is an analogy between electrical systems and mechanical systems, that also contributed the evolution of loudspeakers.

From Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph
O. Read and W.L. Welch
H. W. Sams, 1976

  Entry on Google Books


This book, mentioned above just now, is the 2nd edition (1976) of the original edition (1959). Anyway this book is enormously informative and can’t thank enough. It’s not a technically oriented book but a history book, but it contains many secret stories and side stories along the bald history of the evolution of the disc recording/reproducing technology (and record industry). Definitely a wonderful book and substantial reading.

Disc Recording Equalization Demystified
Gary A. Galo
ARSC Journal, Fall 1996, pp.188-211.
Reprinted in “The LP is Back”, 2nd Edition,
Peterborough, NH: Audio Amateur Press, pp.44-54 (2000)

  Audio eXpress


After reading various articles and books, I find this particular paper is one of the greatest summary of what I wanted to know – of what EQ curve really is, of what we often tend to misunderstand. My exploration initially started maybe because I wanted to fully appreciate this definitive paper in every detail – even between the lines.

Many docs being preserved in World Radio History

  World Radio History

Google Books 上の The Billboard 誌バックナンバーしかなかった時代に比べると、この過去のあらゆる技術資料をアーカイブし公開しているサイトの貴重さが本当に身に沁みます。このサイトに収録された大量の資料のおかげで、数えきれないほど多くの学びと発見を得ることができました。

My only digital source for exploration in the early 2010s was The Billboard back issues on Google Books. But now we have this awesome website, containing tons of historical magazines, proceedings, manuals and many other technical documents. I cannot thank enough because I have learned so many new insights and findings through the contents on this site.

監修: 井上敏也
無線と実験/初歩のラジオ 別冊
誠文堂新光社 (1977)



A magazine book of 416 pages. Such pages like “product reviews”, “how to choose components”, “”proficient use of components” are only one-fourth: all the rest pages are dedicated to technical details and history of disc recording and reproduction. A great magazine book written in Japanese, supervised by Toshiya Inoue, Ph.D, the head of the Audio Engineering Research Center of Victor Co. of Japan, Ltd.

Pspatial Audio Stereo Lab

  Pspatial Audio Stereo Lab Help Index

コンピュータ上で音声ファイルをさまざまに処理できるソフトウェア Stereo Lab のサポートページです。このアプリでは、各種EQカーブにあわせた変換も可能ですが、その前提知識として、ディスク録音の歴史、EQカーブの歴史、機材の歴史、なども大変仔細に掲載されており、多くの学びを得られました。

This is a support (help) page of Pspatial Audio Stereo Lab, a software application “for music lovers, recording and mastering engineers, audiophiles and record collectors”, including phono equalization. Here you can find an incredible amount of information, not only for the operation of the application, but also the technical exploration of phonograph records, recording equipments, EQ curves, and many many more.

Playback equalization for 78 rpm shellacs and early 33⅓ LPs

  Audacity Wiki (old version as of Mar. 17, 2023: here)

非常に有名な音声編集ソフトウェア Audacity にも EQ カーブ変換機能がありますが、これに関して、各種カーブに関する議論やデータが掲載されています。

Audacity is probably the most popular audio editing software application, and it also has a feature of phono equalization. This wiki page contains many information, references and discussion of various phono EQ curves as well.
What makes the “Recommended EQ for each label” list so special is, that it notes the references where the parameters come from. (So some labels have different EQ parameters listed) – great for the “meta-analysis” of the confusion of EQ curves and parameters.



日本語で EQ カーブに関する検索を行うと、まず最初にヒットするのがここではないでしょうか。膨大な情報量ですが、著者の方が真摯に探究を続けられた過程が、先達の足跡として非常に読み応えがあり、大変参考になりました。

If you web-search any EQ-related terms in Japanese, you will probably find this web pages easily. This site contains enormous amount of information regarding phonograph records, recording technology, playback equipments, standardization etc. It definitely is one of the great examples of “the precursors in pursuit of scientific truth”, and every page is worth reading in very detailed. I am so much inspired by his/her articles and memos

VPI Classic Direct Drive Signature turntable - Sidebar 1: The RIAA Curve
Michael Framer
Stereophile (online) (2014)

  Sidebar 1: The RIAA Curve

Stereophile 誌のコラムですが、VPI Classic Direct Drive Signature というターンテーブルのレビュー内に書かれたものです。上述の “Disc Recording Equalization Demystified” 後に書かれており、更にエッセンスを抽出して端的に書かれています。中で触れられている “Cut and Thrust: RIAA LP Equalization” も必読です。

This product review of VPI Classic Direct Drive Signature turntable has a dedicated columm for the EQ. This is an further summary (and the extract of the essence) of the paper “Disc Recording Demystified”. Also, another Stereophile article “Cut and Thrust: RIAA LP Equalization” is mentioned in this sidebar, and it’s also worth reading in every detail.

several blog posts on audio identity (designing)

  audio identity (designing) 内での「RIAAカーヴ」での検索結果


A personal blog (in Japanese) by an ex-editor of an audiophile magazine, Mr. Katsumi Miyazaki. His website is famous because it archives historical articles by famous audiophiles/writers, but unfortunately I didn’t know of his blog until recently. As my study and exploration continued, I searched more with several keywords, then I often come to his blog entries regarding RIAA curves and around, and I feel my own opinion on EQ curves is coming closer and closer to his opinion.

Handbook of Recording Engineering (1st Edition)
John Eargle
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (1986)
ISBN 978-94-010-9368-2

  Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986 Edition (at

録音エンジニアにとっての入門的学習書・リファレンスとしての確固たる地位を築いているという、John Eargle 氏による書籍(1976年と1980年に出版された書籍 “Sound Recording” の改訂版)にも、ディスク録音についての技術詳細がばっちり書かれています。1992年発行の第2版からは、アナログディスク録音の章が削除され、ディジタル録音の話がメインとなります。

This 1986 book is a renamed edition of “Sound Recording” by the same author, originally published in 1976 (and 2nd edition in 1980). Chapter 10 presents “Analog Disc Recording and Reproduction” and is very educational even for audio/music fans. From the 2nd edition of the book (published in 1992) and after, the “Analog Disc” chapter is omitted to match the digital years.

Manual of Analogue Sound Restoration Techniques
Peter Copeland
The British Library (2008)

  Access the manual of analogue audio restoration techniques

元BBCエンジニアで大英図書館サウンドアーカイブの収蔵管理者 Peter Copeland 氏が2006年に亡くなる直前まで執筆されほぼ完成していた原稿を元に2008年に公開されたものです。録音再生技術はもとより、英国寄りの情報も非常に多く、読み込みがいのある素晴らしい資料です。そして文中でご本人が書かれている通り「曖昧性を排除し科学的に」書かれています。

This 333-page PDF document, made public in 2008, is by Pete Copeland, who was Conservation Manager at the British Library Sound Archive until 2002. His work went near to completion when he died in 2006. Tremendous amount of info on recording/reproduction technology and technique is covered on this book, and it’s also helpful to understand the scene from the Breat Britain’s point of view (not only from the US’s view). Maybe I need many more months and years until I fully appreciate the whole contents of this great book. What’s more, just as Mr. Copeland stresses in the book, it’s written “in unambiguous scientific language”.

日本オーディオ協会 (1986)

  CiNii 上のエントリ


This hardback clothbound book was published in 1986, after 10 years of elaboration – an historical anthology of audio and its technology, covering essential topics, of course including disc recording and reproduction. What’s more, this is a very few examples of such book, written in Japanese.


There are many other references of course – I’ll mention them in the following texts and articles.

» 続き / Sequel: “Things I learned on Phono EQ curves, Pt.1” »

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.